for Seals, Gaskets, O-Rings, Orings, Rubber.
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Abrasion - Surface loss of a material
due to frictional forces.
- The wearing away of a materiel surface by friction.
Particles become detached by a combined cutting, shearing
and tearing action. Furnace carbon blacks are the best
ingredients found for increasing the resistance of rubber
compounds to abrasion.
- The resistance of a material to loss of surface particles
due to friction.
- A method in which an attempt is made to produce and
measure the effects of natural aging in a shorter period.
Accelerator (of vulcanization) - Any
substance, which hastens the vulcanization of rubber
causing it to take place in shorter time or at a lower
temperature. In earlier days basic oxides such as limes,
litharge and magnesia were recognized as having this
function. Nowadays the important accelerators are organic
substances containing either nitrogen or sulfur or both.
According to potency, or speed of action, accelerators
are sometimes classified as slow, medium, rapid, semi-ultra
and ultra-accelerators. Most accelerators enhance tensile
properties, and many improve age resistance.
Accelerator Ultra - An accelerator which causes
very rapid vulcanization, even at comparatively low
temperatures. Tetramethylthiuram disulfide is a typical
ultra-accelerator. The dislkyldithiocarbamates and xanthates
are also ultra-accelerators.
- Withstands the action of acids.
- Cyanoethylene, vinyl cyanide, CH2=CHCN a volatile
liquid boiling at 178.50 C, prepared by dehydration
of ethylene cyanhydrin and by catalytic addition or
hydrogen cyanide to acetylene. Used in co-polymerization
with butadiene in the manufacture of Buna N or Nitrile
Activator - A substance, which
by chemical interaction promotes a specific chemical
action of a second substance. Most accelerators require
activators to bring out their full effect in vulcanization,
e.g., zinc oxide or other metallic oxides; some accelerators
require a fat acid, especially with zinc oxide.
Adapters - A "V" shaped ring either male
or female to fit together with "V" shaped rings to form
a set of adjustable hydraulic packing.
- The state in which two surfaces are held together
by interfacial forces which may consist of molecular
forces or interlocking action, or both.
- The clinging or sticking of two (2) material surfaces
to one another. In rubber parlance, the strength of
bond or union between two (2) rubber surfaces or plies
cured or uncured. The bond between a cured rubber surface
and a nonrubber surface, e.g., glass, metal, wood, fabric.
Adhesion Failure - The separation of two
materials at the surface interface rather than within
one of the materials itself.
(1) The irreversible change of material properties after
environ- mental exposure for an interval of time; (2)
Exposing materials to an environment for an interval
Aging - A progressive change
in the chemical and physical properties or rubber, especially
vulcanized rubber, usually marked by deterioration.
Aging may be retarded by the use or antioxidants.
Air Checks - See Air trap below
Air trap - Surface markings or depressions due
to trapping air voids in body or part due to entrapped
gas between the materials being cured and the mold or
Air Curing - The vulcanization
of a rubber product in air as distinguished from vulcanizing
in a press or steam vulcanizer.
Seal Rings - Sealing rings for pistons made from
high grade aluminum alloy
Amines - Derivatives
of ammonia in which one or more or (lie hydrogen atoms
is replaced by an alkyl or aryl radical. They are called
primary, secondary and tertiary amines according to
the number of such substitutions. Example: RNH2, R2NH,
Aniline Point - The temperature
in degrees Fahrenheit at which a kerosene, diesel fuel
or distillate is miscible with an equal volume of aniline.
Low aniline point hydrocarbons tend to swell rubbers
to a greater degree than those with a high aniline point.
Anti-Extrusion Rings - Also, called back-up
rings or anti-extrusion rings. Used to fit behind rubber
o-ring seals to prevent extrusion into the gap between
the metal pieces
Antioxidant - Usually
organic and nitrogenous. A substance, which inhibits
or retards oxidation and certain other kinds of aging.
Some antioxidants cause staining or discoloration of
the rubber compound on exposure to light and are used
only in black or dark-colored goods. Others (phenolic),
described as non-staining, are used in white or light-colored
Anti-vibration Mounts - Rubber
molded pieces used as padding between a motor and the
frame to prevent vibration transfer to the machine to
which it is mounted.
Apportionment - Referred to here
as a part of Reliability Engineering. Synonymous with
the term Reliability Apportionment, which is the assign-
ment of reliability goals from system to subsystem in
such a way that the whole system will have the required
AQ Seal - A special purpose
Assortment Kits - Aconvenient
package containing several sizes of the same seal, o-ring
or retainer ring.
Autoclave - A pressure
vessel into which materials or articles can be placed
and exposed to steam under pressure. It is commonly
used for vulcanization.
- Also called u-cups, ucups or u cups. A "U" shaped
sealing ring made from a strong pliable plastic or rubber.